Apple Releases Whitepaper Detailing Its Approach to Automated Driving System Safety

Apple Releases Whitepaper Detailing Its Approach to Automated Driving System Safety

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Apple has released a whitepaper to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration detailing its approach to automated driving system safety.

The paper comes after the company's poor showing in California's Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Reports for 2018. Apple averaged 1.1 miles per disengagement. Waymo performed best with 11,154.3 miles traveled per disengagement.

Apple Releases Whitepaper Detailing Its Approach to Automated Driving System Safety

How Our System Works
Our autonomy system consists of three main components operating in a cooperative continuous loop that repeats multiple times per second. These components are responsible for sensing the environment, planning the vehicle response, and executing the planned action.

● Sense
The sensing component is able to determine where the vehicle is located in the world and can identify and track surrounding objects, such as other vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists. This is accomplished using a combination of sensors, including LiDAR, radar, and cameras, and provides high-resolution 360-degree 3D coverage around the vehicle.

● Plan
The planning component is responsible for determining how the vehicle will navigate safely through the world. It uses the ADS’s detailed map and accurate positioning technology, together with information from the sensing component, to predict where the vehicle and every surrounding object will be many seconds into the future. This information is used to determine the next action for the ADS to take.

● Act
The action component converts the planning component’s location and trajectory information into commands for the vehicle’s steering, braking, and propulsion systems.
In addition to the commands generated by the action component, our ADS includes supporting hardware and software systems that monitor the state of safety-critical systems and is capable of immediately transferring control of the test vehicle to the safety driver when needed.

Notably, Apple has some strict requirements for its safety drivers...

Requirements and Training
We hire proficient and experienced safety drivers and operators who have a clear driving record with no serious accidents, DUI convictions, or any license suspensions or revocations within the last 10 years. They also must pass a drug screening and a background check before the training program starts. Each of our safety drivers and operators completes a training program that includes:
• Defensive driving on closed-course proving grounds, where a range of vehicle handling and emergency maneuvers are taught.
• Vehicle-specific training consisting of classroom instruction, simulation, and testing on closed-course proving grounds. Instruction includes emergency braking and emergency maneuvers performed in a vehicle that accurately represents the driving dynamics of our test vehicles.
• Operational training for the ADS, including correct hand and foot placement, disengagement methods, and the use of the vehicle’s human-machine interface.
• Supervised public road driving, followed by a video review and evaluation of the drive to identify areas for improvement. Supervised drives are conducted until the safety drivers demonstrate that they meet all of the required performance criteria.

Safety drivers and operators receive ongoing feedback on their performance and safety-critical responsibilities. Additionally, safety drivers are anonymously surveyed to assess mental and physical workload involved in operating the ADS, and to identify any concerns that they may have.

You can check out the full white paper at the link below...

Read More [via CNET]

Apple Releases Whitepaper Detailing Its Approach to Automated Driving System Safety
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